Wednesday, February 4, 2015

Macronutrients: cations

Potassium seems to be the main alkaline ion inside cells followed by magnesium - either way, magnesium is key to controlling both. Sodium and Calcium are extracellular, outside cells, and can be controlled by hydration and diuretics and Mag mur.

Dogs and cats draw only Mag mur, which controls 3 of the 4 cations (the 4th, sodium, is regulated by fluids), so that's all we need to know about Cations.

From here:


Potassium is the most abundant intracellular cation (positively charged ion) in the body. The intracellular concentration is around 20 times greater than in the extracellular fluid, resulting in a large concentration gradient. This maintains the excitability of nerve and muscle cells.
Hyperkalaemia results in progressive conduction problems, which if left untreated can result in cardiac arrest and death. Patients often present with weakness, which progresses to flaccid paralysis or deep tendon reflexes, and cardiac arrest.

Hypokalaemia can cause ventricular tachycardia, and can be caused by pH changes. Hypokalaemia can also be due to increased loss of potassium through renal excretion, which may be caused by diabetes insipidus, hypercalcaemia, hyperaldosteronism, excessive fluid replacement therapy and diarrhoea.

Many patients who are potassium deficient are also deficient in magnesium. Magnesium is important for potassium uptake and for the maintenance of intracellular potassium levels, particularly in the myocardium.


Magnesium is the second most abundant intracellular cation. The interaction with magnesium and the enzyme sodium–potassium ATPase (which acts to pump potassium into cells in exchange for sodium) plays a crucial part in regulating cellular concentration gradients.

Hypermagnesaemia is rare in patients without significantly impaired renal function; magnesium is mainly excreted by the kidneys, which have the capacity to secrete large quantities. Elevated serum magnesium levels can be seen following extensive soft-tissue injury or necrosis (e.g. trauma, burns or following cardiac arrest) as magnesium is mobilised from within cells.

Hypermagneasaemia may lead to nausea, lethargy and weakness, which can lead to respiratory failure, paralysis and coma. Treatment of hypermagnesaemia is based on the patient’s fluid and kidney function. Patients with hypovolaemia and normal renal function can be treated with aggressive intravenous hydration therapy, which will rebalance serum ion concentrations.Magnesium acts as a calcium channel blocker, and at high concentrations this can give rise to electrical conduction abnormalities and require intravenous calcium administration.

Hypomagnesaemia can occur in chronic or acute asthma. It can be due to conditions that affect absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, such as diarrhoea. Signs and symptoms of hypomagnesaemia include neuromuscular manifestations such as tetany (involuntary contraction of muscles), tremors, seizures, delirium and psychosis.


Sodium is the main extracellular cation in the body and has significant effects on serum osmolality. Together with potassium it has a large role in controlling membrane potentials in the myocardium, and therefore a significant role in governing cardiac action potentials. However, unlike potassium, fluctuations in serum sodium levels rarely cause significant cardiac problems until severe variation from normal physiological values has occurred.

Symptoms of sodium deviations are rarely cardiac specific and usually include nausea, vomiting, weakness and confusion, which can result in seizures or coma if left untreated. Excess total body water in relation to sodium is often seen in patients with severe cardiac failure, whereby compensatory mechanisms for sodium regulation are compromised (resulting in hypervolaemic hyponatraemia). Patients should be placed on fluid restriction and treated with a diuretic, which will reduce water levels and gradually correct serum sodium levels.


Calcium has a significant effect on cells in the myocardium, affecting conduction, intracellular signalling and contraction of muscle fibres. In particular, calcium levels can alter the duration of the plateau phase of the myocardial action potential and affect heart conduction.

Hypercalcaemia affects smooth muscle fibres, causing muscle weakness. Hypercalcaemia can be managed initially with aggressive fluid administration, such as sodium chloride 0.9% to encourage renal excretion and [homeopathic] diuretics. If unsuccessful, intravenous bisphosphonates can be used to slow the rate of bone turnover and reduce serum calcium levels, which is commonly undertaken in those with concomitant malignancy.

Symptoms of hypocalcaemia include cramps and tetany and require rapid intravenous treatment with intravenous calcium. Patients  should also be given intravenous magnesium to aid correction.

Trying to support magnesium chloride

I'm going slow trying to find out what the dogs need to help them absorb the mag mur (magnesium chloide, but I'll use the term mag mur from it's homeopathic roots).

I've been throwing in a Vit B complex into the cooking food (who knows if the heating kills off a lot of its effect) since I heard that it aids magnesium uptake. At any other stage of preparation, the cats won't get the benefit, so cooking time is it.

They're drawing Cuprums, Argents and Cobalt 6, but not Ferrums, Zinc or Chromium. They're drawing Mang a bit, but the shop has mislabeled it, so I'm hesitant to use ('Mag ace', 'Mag met', etc. darn those kids!:). They're drawing Merc corr 30, but it's irritating my cracked skin and drying it out, so I wonder if it is necessary for the Magnesium to work.

Surprisingly, the remedies are almost drawn evenly so I can't tell what they need more of except the first 3. I'm stumped because I have no clue what else to give - is this the worst time to give such alkaline remedies? I've gone the whole distance from New Moon to Full Moon, maybe the FM to NM time is more correct for this alkalinity. Or they need it balanced with some acidic stuff. Only one way to find out is to keep going on.

I've started adding mustard oil to their food (which they don't like too much) along with flax seed powder, coconut oil (blech to them!) and rice bran oil. The dogs don't like the coconut or the mustard, but love the flaxseed and the rice bran. I want to give them a couple of days to develop a taste because they do draw Thiosinimum 6 (sinapsis nigra), and I want their internal scar tissue to heal.

Whatever the mag mur Q is doing, it's driving up the metabolism of a lot of elements. They're drawing all the plant remedies almost without discrimination too - weird, it's like their need for phytochemicals is so extreme they can't make up their minds.

I'm trying to take this slow because I want to get things right, but their bodies are in a real hurry to heal.

Post-Cyclone and 12 days of Magnesium

I haven't abandoned blogging, so bear with me.:)

It's been 12 days since we all started using Mag mur Q (Magnesium Chloride or oil). Initally I did have a burning sensation when I applied it and a bit of pain in the nearest problematic muscle (my jaw, my shin-bones, mostly).

I've read up a great deal on it and realised that my pains were in the skeletal muscles, the deep muscles that are connected to the periosteum. This is because Mag mur is a periosteal food and begins its healing from there.

My friend has had her toothache return, but the dogs and cats all appear to be much improved for the chemical added into the food. In fact, the cats were the worst, until the end of the cyclone two days ago, they'd be begging for the magnesium enriched food almost 24 hours hanging around all hours of the day and night. The dogs were as bad, but better behaved and had less choice about how much I give them. Still, it appeared to protect them through the effects of the distant ocean storm.

There were 4 runner-dogs I ran across post-cyclone. Two had the food with the magnesium in it, and settled down to where they were (where I continue to feed them); the two older white ones unfortunately didn't eat any of the food so I give them Reiki when I can, am hoping to reach them that way. One was almost completely blind with cataract and terrified, poor darling - I've lost track of him completley. One I saw sleeping among the piles of leaves last night at 2:30 am, but by the time I came back with food he was gone - I doubt if he'd have eaten it, he's so exhausted and depleted.

The best effects were on
- the Devdas petrol bunk black dog who couldn't walk or eat from her dizziness - I applied it twice down her spine and gave it to the manager to put in milk for her. She's virtually completely healed which even surprised me.
- the Indian Express bus-stand dog who could barely stand for the knots in her muscles and giddiness - she's much better and more balanced though not completely healed.
- my calves have some severe scarring from periosteal ulcers, those are much better after 2 applications a week apart of the mag oil. I've only been lazy or I'd have done it more often, so surprising was this healing. II've had that crocodile skin since I was 6.:)